Wolfram

SATU dekade ke depan, manusia terkaya di dunia boleh jadi bukan lagi
Bill Gates. Calon penggantinya bukan seorang computer nerd atau
venture capitalist, melainkan fisikawan muda jenius bernama Stephen
Wolfram. Ia baru saja menggemparkan jagat keilmuan dengan menerbitkan
dan meluncurkan sendiri magnum opusnya setebal 1.200 halaman lebih
berjudul The New Kind of Science (TNKS). Menurut sejumlah pembaca
awal di situs Amazon.com, buku ini dalam magnitude dan gaya
provokasinya dianggap setara dengan The Origin of Species-nya Charles
Darwin dan Das Kapital-nya Karl Marx.

Yang luar biasa, Wolfram juga wirausahawan tulen yang piawai
memasarkan dan menjual temuan-temuannya ke dunia bisnis yang makin
knowledge intensive. Sebagai multijutawan dollar barangkali ia
merupakan ilmuwan terkaya di dunia. Dengan kekayaan itu, ia mendanai
sendiri riset-risetnya sambil menjadi CEO bagi perusahaannya dengan
ratusan karyawan.
Dalam komunitas fisika, sejumlah tokoh tak ragu mengatakan kehebatan
Wolfram setara dengan dewa-dewa terpenting fisika seperti Galileo,
Newton, dan Einstein. Jika Galileo dikenang dengan Teori Pergerakan
Planet, Newton dengan Teori Gravitasi, dan Einstein dengan Teori
Relativitas, maka Wolfram dengan Cellular Automata.

Dengan perkakas ini, Wolfram mengklaim dapat memecahkan semua problem
fisika abad ke-20 yang sampai kini masih misterius seperti soal
relasi gaya-gaya elektromaknetik dan gravitasi. Dengan demikian
cellular automata boleh jadi akan memenuhi impian suntuk Einstein-
yang tak kesampaian hingga akhir hayatnya-akan adanya teori gabungan
(unified theory of everything) yang mampu menjelaskan semua fenomena
alam dan kosmos itu sendiri.

Namun, cellular automata lebih ambisius dari impian tertinggi
Einstein. Bukan saja di bidang fisika, perkakas Wolfram ditengarai
dapat menjelaskan serta memecahkan berbagai masalah fundamental dalam
biologi, matematika, kimia, computer science, bahkan wilayah-wilayah
lain yang secara tradisional dianggap di luar pengaruh fisika seperti
sosiologi, psikologi, ekonomi, juga teologi, seni, dan filsafat.

***
APAKAH cellular automata itu? Sederhananya, cellular automata adalah
sehimpunan proses fundamental peciptaan pola-pola keteraturan dengan
menggunakan komputer (computer-generated ordering process) yang
bentuk akhirnya sangat menyerupai apa yang terjadi di alam. Program
komputer Wolfram ini mengambil input data yang tidak teratur (bahkan
chaos), lalu diproses menggunakan sejumlah Aturan Wolfram, dan
akhirnya menghasilkan output gambar yang sangat mengagumkan baik
pola, kompleksitas, maupun derajat keteraturannya di layar komputer.

Dalam bukunya yang dipenuhi ratusan gambar itu, Wolfram menunjukkan
proses terciptanya berbagai bentuk pola-pola yang kompleks seperti
kristal es, bunga-bungaan, dedaunan, sebaran warna-warni bulu burung
merak, spiral galaksi, turbulensi air deras, jaringan sirkuit otak
manusia, badai topan, kulit kerang, lekak-lekuk sungai, pokoknya
berbagai macam bentuk output dari sistem operasi alam semesta.

Wolfram berpendapat bentuk-bentuk yang dihasilkan oleh cellular
automata itu bukan sekadar replika kebetulan dari fitur-fitur yang
ditemui di alam, tetapi sekaligus dapat menjelaskan bagaimana alam
bekerja pada tingkat paling fundamental. Karena itu, Wolfram tak ragu
berpendapat, program cellular automata akan menjadi metoda paling
ampuh yang dikenal umat manusia hingga kini, untuk memecahkan rahasia
alam, sekaligus menjelaskan arsitektur jagat raya dan evolusi segenap
bentuk kehidupan di dalamnya. Wolfram bahkan menengarai semesta alam
ini tidak lain adalah sebuah mahakomputer alami yang berperilaku
sebagai sebuah super cellular automata.

Di tingkat praktis, tidak saja celluar automata akan merevolusi jagat
sains secara radikal, tetapi Wolfram juga menjanjikan terbukanya
pintu gerbang lebar bagi lahirnya sejumlah besar teknologi baru dalam
waktu segera seperti komputer kuantum, supermikroteknik pada skala
atom, desain serta reparasi bagian-bagian jaringan dan organ tubuh,
materi baru, dan obat-obatan baru yang lebih ajaib khasiatnya.
Sungguh fantastis!

***

SIAPA gerangan sang jenius ini? Lahir tahun 1959 di London, Stephen
Wolfram adalah
a new kind of physicist. Ketika masih sekolah menengah di Eaton,
Inggris, ia belajar sendiri fisika tingkat advanced pada usia 12
tahun. Saat umurnya baru 15 tahun makalahnya di bidang fisika teori
sudah muncul di jurnal fisika.
Tak betah belajar dari guru dan dosen-menurut dia terlalu lamban-ia
lalu melahap berbagai buku teks kelas berat ketika teman seusianya
masih sibuk bermain Halloween dan bercinta monyet.

Pertama kali kuliah di Oxford, ia masuk semester satu. Sangat tidak
menarik baginya, ia langsung menghadiri kuliah semester enam. Juga
tidak cukup menarik, ia lalu memutuskan tidak pernah masuk kelas
lagi. “Saya dapat mengetahui berbagai hal jauh lebih cepat dan lebih
mendalam dengan membaca daripada mendengar dosen ngomong,” begitu
alasannya menyebut kuliah sebagai kegiatan buang waktu.
Hebatnya, ia mampu menghasilkan puluhan makalah di bidang kosmologi
dan fisika partikel yang dimuat pada jurnal-jurnal fisika kelas
tinggi.

Tidak sampai tamat S1 dari Oxford, ia langsung direkrut oleh raksasa
fisika peraih nobel dari California Institute of Technology
(Caltech), Murray Gell-Man, tahun 1978. Wolfram langsung masuk
program doktor. Di kampus ini, di mana Richard Feynman, fisikawan
legendaris lainnya bermukim, Wolfram juga tampak kurang tertantang.
Agar ia betah, maka program doktor khusus diberikan padanya. Dalam
tempo setahun saja, ia mendapat PhD pada usia 20 tahun tanpa harus
membuat disertasi, tetapi cukup membundel ulang enam makalah
terbaiknya.

Pergaulan intelektual tingkat tinggi antara doktor remaja Wolfram
dengan fisikawan dewa sekelas Feynman dan Gell-Man tampaknya sanggup
membuatnya kerasan selama 10 tahun di Caltech. Tapi, akhirnya ia
bentrok juga dengan administratur institut itu perihal komersialisasi
temuan-temuannya.
Usia 31, ia diterima di Kampus Einstein yang legendaris, the
Institute for Advanced Studies di Princeton. Wolfram tercatat sebagai
anggota termuda institut itu sepanjang sejarah. Tapi, kampus
penelitian paling bebas di dunia ini pun ternyata tidak sanggup
menyediakan ruang bagi kebebasan gerak dan independensi intelektual
yang dituntut Wolfram.

Akhirnya tahun 1986 ia mendirikan Wolfram Research Inc, institusi
penelitian pribadinya. Di sinilah ia menggabungkan bisnis dan riset
secara bebas yang berpuncak pada lahirnya mahakarya TNKS yang
menggemparkan itu. Dalam rangka mengembangkan TNKS, Wolfram harus
pula mengarang Mathematica-sebuah sistem software yang digunakan
untuk keperluan komputasi teknikal dan pemrograman simbolik (symbolic
manipulation programming)-terlebih dahulu, yang sama raksasa bobotnya
dengan TNKS itu sendiri. Ini persis seperti Newton yang harus
mengarang dulu kalkulus diferensial agar bisa menjelaskan gravitasi
dan Einstein yang harus mengonstruksi dulu sebuah aljabar empat
dimensi agar bisa menjelaskan relativitas.

Bedanya, kedua pendahulu Wolfram itu cuma ilmuwan murni yang hidup
dari dana negara sedangkan Wolfram sekaligus entrepreneur kawakan
yang jago mencetak duit gede dalam setiap langkahnya menuju puncak
sains tertinggi.

***

KISAH Wolfram tampaknya tak pernah dibayangkan orang ketika
memikirkan fisika. Bagi awam, fisika adalah ilmu esoteris yang tak
jelas manfaat praktisnya. Sarjana fisika biasanya kere tak berduit.
Pekerjaan mereka paling-paling jadi dosen.
Otak mereka dipenuhi atom-atom, galaksi-galaksi, dan persamaan-
persamaan matematika yang eksotis, tetapi kantung mereka enggak gaul.
Wacana mereka makro-makro tapi dompet super mikro. Konon Einstein
sendiri pun pernah mengatakan, “Science is a wonderful thing if one
does not have to earn one’s living at it.”
Alhasil, citra fisikawan memang jauh dari menarik. Sampai hari ini
pun fisika tidak pernah menjadi pilihan utama bagi kebanyakan
mahasiswa cerdas namun tetap ingin hidup keren berkecukupan.

Sekitar tiga dekade lalu, jurusan fisika ITB bahkan harus menawarkan
beasiswa bagi siapa saja yang bersedia masuk fisika jika lulus ujian
masuk. Banyak input jurusan fisika saat itu merupakan mahasiswa kere.
Sebagian lagi, terjebak oleh citra di atas, lalu hengkang dan testing
ulang ke jurusan teknik.
Memang ada juga minoritas yang hebat otaknya, termotivasi oleh the
beauty of physics itu sendiri, menganggap mencari duit sebagai
kegiatan yang inferior, memutuskan mendalami fisika sampai ke tulang
sumsum. Namun, makhluk seperti ini dianggap aneh oleh masyarakat.
Orangtua pun biasanya tidak mengizinkan anaknya memilih fisika.

Bahkan, seorang ibunda Evelyne Mintarno pun, yang anaknya berhasil
menjadi satu-satunya peserta putri dari Indonesia dalam Olimpide
Fisika 2002 di Bali, belum merelakan putrinya memilih fisika karena
terbelenggu anggapan fisikawan hanya bisa jadi guru. Padahal putrinya
yang hebat itu, selain meminati sungguh fisika sudah diterima di
universitas bergengsi, Stanford. (Kompas, 24/7)

***

KIPRAH para fisikawan sesungguhnya tidaklah sesempit menjadi dosen
saja. Ilmu fisika yang selalu terobsesi dengan perkara-perkara
fundamental, perumusan dan pemecahan masalah secara elegan, dengan
disiplin berpikir yang rigor konseptual, sebenarnya lebih dari cukup
sebagai bekal hidup penuh makna, termasuk hidup makmur kalau mau.
Sisanya adalah minat, ambisi, dan etos kerja.

Selain menjadi peneliti dan guru, banyak sarjana fisika Indonesia
akhirnya menjadi eksekutif bisnis (seperti Harianto Mangkusasono dan
Charlo Mamora, terakhir keduanya menjadi konsultan pengembangan dan
transformasi bisnis), rohaniwan (seperti Pater Drost), ekonom
(seperti Rizal Ramli dan Umar Juoro, meskipun keduanya tidak
menamatkan fisika), dan terbanyak menjadi profesional di berbagai
bidang (misalnya IT, perminyakan, elektronika, otomotif, pers, SDM,
pertambangan, perbankan) termasuk menjadi wiraswastawan. Intinya,
dari fisika orang bisa ke mana-mana, tergantung minat, stamina juang,
dan sekali lagi etos kerja.

Ke depan, seiring dengan munculnya fenomena Wolfram di atas, dapat
diharapkan semakin banyak orang-orang muda yang terinspirasi menjadi
fisikawan-hartawan. Mengapa tidak? Dalam dunia di mana kapitalisme
global semakin meraja, semakin diperlukan sumbangan berbagai jenis
inovasi berbasis fisika untuk menciptakan business value yang hebat-
hebat.
Wolfram membuktikan, meraih kemakmuran tidak berarti mengorbankan
ilmu, atau sebaliknya, berilmu tinggi tidak harus jadi miskin.
Wolfram mendemonstrasikan sebuah paradigma baru. Menjual fisika untuk
uang, dengan uang mendanai riset fisika, dan dengan uang cukup mampu
memperoleh independensi berkarya, dengan sebuah side effect yang tak
kalah menarik: hidup enak dan bermartabat.

Salah satu problem besar fisikawan murni Indonesia (ilmuwan berbasis
universitas umumnya) ialah mengkotakkan diri dalam ruang sempit
penelitian. Mengemis dana penelitian dari birokrat yang tak paham
penelitian. Lalu mendapatkan dana superkecil dari anggaran negara
yang memang tak peduli penelitian. Kemudian dipotong sana-sini oleh
oknum siluman. Maka, jadilah penelitian jadi-jadian. Hasilnya? No
money, no science, no dignity!

Saya setuju dengan pendapat Rektor ITB Kusmayanto Kadiman, bahwa ITB
belum saatnya disebut a research university. Meskipun ada kontroversi
di balik kisah Wolfram di atas, satu hal positif sudah jelas, ilmuwan
jenis baru harus mampu menggabungkan tiga peran sekaligus: peneliti,
marketer, dan eksekutif.

Saat negeri ini carut-marut dan tak punya uang, semakin absurd
rasanya mengharapkan dana riset dari negara. Mungkinkah para ilmuwan
kita meniru gaya Wolfram mencetak uang dengan dan dari ilmu mereka?
Tantangan ini lebih relevan buat Indonesia, karena metoda favorit
dalam mencari uang yang dipakai para pemegang kekuasaan di lembaga-
lembaga negara kita-seperti diberitakan koran tiap hari-ialah main
injak dan terkam warisan era-Ken Arok.

Padahal kata orang, kini era knowledge economy, di mana wealth
creation akan lebih mengandalkan kreativitas, inovasi teknologi, dan
pengetahuan intensif seperti didemonstrasikan Bill Gates dan Stephen
Wolfram; dan bukan tanah, ternak, atau mesin, let alone brute power.
Kalau ilmuwan-ilmuwan kita masa kini tidak bisa berkiprah lain
daripada apa yang lazim dan zalim di masa lampau, tampaknya satu-
satunya harapan kita ialah pada tunas-tunas belia yang bertarung di
Olimpiade Fisika minggu lalu. Untuk mereka, selamat dan semoga jaya.
Untuk panitia dan tim pelatih, terima kasih atas visi, kontribusi,

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